The Affenpinscher dates back to the seventeenth century and is German in origin. The name is derived from the German Affe (ape,monkey). He is ancestral to the Griffon Bruxellois (Brussels Griffon) Miniature Schnauzer(Common nickname is “Monkey Dog”).

Larger dogs of the Affenpinscher type have been known since about 1600. They were about 12 to 13 inches, and came in colors of gray, fawn, black and tan, gray and tan, and also red. White feet and chest were also common. The breed was created to be a ratter, working to remove rodents from kitchens, granaries, and stables.

The Affenpinscher has harsh rough coat and a monkey-like expression. Its coat is shaggier over the head and shoulders forming a mane, with shorter coat over the back and hind quarters. It is harsh and wiry in texture. The FCI and UK breed standards specifies that the coat must be black, but the AKC also allows gray, silver, red, black and tan, and belge (not beige; belge is a mixture of red, black and white hairs);other clubs have their own lists of acceptable colours, with black being the preference.

Affenpinschers has a similar look of terriers.They are very much different from terriers, however, in that they are actually part of the pinscher-schnauzer subgroup of group 2 in the FCI classification. They are active, adventurous, curious, and stubborn, but they are alsofun-loving and playful. The breed is confident, lively, affectionate towards family members and also very protective of them. This loyal little dog enjoys being with its family. It needs consistent, firm training because some can be quite difficult to housebreak. The training should be varied because the dog can easily become bored.

They are not recommended for very small children, they can become very territorial when it comes to their toys and food, This dog is mostly quiet but can become very excited if attacked or threatened and shows no fear toward any aggressor. It is best suited for a family who likes a show and has a sense of humor.

A small sample of Affenpinschers in a UK survey had a median lifespan which is a typical lifespan for a purebred dog, but a bit lower than most breeds of their size. The most common causes of death were old age (24%), urologic (19%), and “combinations” (14%).

The Affenpinscher can get hip dysplasia. As with many small breeds of dog they are prone to collapsed trachea, which is best avoided by walking the dog with a harness instead of a collar. Cataracts are occasionally reported.

The Affenpinscher is good for apartment life. They are very active indoors and will do okay without a yard. These dogs are sensitive to temperature extremes. Overly warm living conditions are damaging to the coat. Although it is an energetic and active little dog, a lot of its exercise needs can be met with indoor play, like all dogs, the Affenpinschers should be taken for daily walks to fulfill it’s canine instinct to walk. It will also enjoy a chance to run around outside in a wide open-space.

Coat is rough & thick and needs to be groomed two to three times a week because of their 1 inch coat. They have a very high activity level and a average to high learning rate. They are not good guard dogs , but can be good watchdogs.

The height of the Affenpinscher is about 9.5 to 11 inches (24 to 28 cm.),and the weight is 7 to 9 pounds (3 to 3.5 kg.).The life span of the Affenpinschers is 11 to 12 years. The litter size usually range from 2 to 3 puppies.

Country of orgin:

Classification and breed standards:
FCI: Group 2 Section 1 #186 Stds
AKC: Toy Stds
ANKC: Group 1 – (Toys) Stds
CKC: Group 5 – (Toys) Stds
KC (UK): Toy Stds
NZKC: Toy Stds
UKC: Companion Breeds Stds

FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
AKC = American Kennel Club
KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
NKC = National Kennel Club
NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry

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afghan hound

The Afghan hound is a very old sighthound dog breed. Its local name is Tāzī. The country of origin is Afghanistan. Their history is uncertain. It is belived that they were used for hunting with tribal chiefs on horse back. Because these tribes were isolated, the breed was kept very pure and was unknown to outsiders until the nineteenth century.It was first brought to England by British officers in the early twentieth century and arrived in the the 1920’s.

They are distingushed by its thick, fine, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end. the breed acquired its unique features in the cold mountains of Afghanistan, where it was originally used to hunt wolves, foxes, and gazelles. He has a straight front, proudly carried head, and the skull is evenly balanced with the forehead, eyes gazing into the distance as if in memory of ages past.

The coat may be any colour, but white markings, particularly on the head, are discouraged; many individuals have a black facial mask. Some specimens have facial hair that looks like a Manchu moustache that are called “mandarins.” Some Afghan hounds are almost white, but particolour hounds (white with islands of red or black) are not acceptable and may indicate impure breeding.

The typical Afghan hound can be aloof and dignified, but happy and clownish when playing. The breed has a reputation among dog trainers of having a relatively low “obedience intelligence” as defined by author Stanley Coren. The Afghan hound has many cat-like tendencies and is not slavish in its obedience as are some other breeds. The Afghan hound has a leaning towards independence. Owners should not be surprised if their Afghan hounds sometimes choose to ignore commands. Although seldom used today for hunting in Europe and America where they are popular, Afghan hounds are frequent participants in lure coursing events and are also popular as show dogs. They have a very high activity level and are good watch dogs. They are not very good guard dogs

In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (31%), old age (20%), cardiac (10.5%), and urologic (5%). Major health issues are allergies, and cancer. Sensitivity to anesthesia is an issue the Afghan hound shares with the rest of the sighthound group, as sighthounds have relatively low levels of body fat.

The Afghan hound is not recommended for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with acreage. This breed can live in or outdoors, although it would be happier sleeping indoors. Afghan hounds love open spaces and must be allowed to run free in a safe area as well as having long daily walks. It needs a minimum of 30 minutes of free galloping per day.

The coat requires considerable care and grooming. The long topknot and the shorter-haired saddle on the back in the mature dog are distinctive features of the Afghan houndcoat. The high hipbones and unique small ring on the end of the tail are also characteristics of the breed.

Their weight is about 20 to 27 kg (45 to 60 pounds) and the height is about 61 to 73 cm (24 to 29 inches). Afghan hounds in UK surveys had a median lifespan of about 12 years, which is similar to other breeds of their size. They usually have a litter size of 6 to 8 puppies.

Alternative names:
Baluchi Hound
Sage Baluchi
Ogar Afgan

Country of Origin:

Classification and breed standards:
FCI: Group 10 Section 1 #228 Stds
AKC: Hound Stds
ANKC: Group 4 – (Hounds) Stds
CKC: Group 2 – (Hounds) Stds
KC (UK): Hound Stds
NZKC: Hounds Stds
UKC: Sighthounds and Pariah Dogs Stds

FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
AKC = American Kennel Club
UKC = United Kennel Club
KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
NKC = National Kennel Club
NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry


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The country of origin for the Aidi dog is Morocco, probably originating in the Sahara. The dog has never worked as a sheepdog even though the 1963 standard was published under the name Atlas Sheepdog, this was corrected in 1969.

The Aidi also known as, Atlas Shepherd Dog and/or Chien de l’Atlas has existed for four or five millenia in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Libya, and Algeria protecting his owner and property from wildcats, other predators, and strangers. A courageous and alert dog, and ready for action, Aidi was valued for hisindependent thinking, loyalty to his duty and a remarkable ability to detect the presence of snakes. Faithful, affectionate, docile and very protective of his family, Aidi is somewhat aloof with strangers, but is never aggressive. In its native Morocco it is often paired in hunting with the Sloughi, which chases down prey that the Aidi has located by scent.

This breed has also been called the Berber, after the Berber tribes who utilized it, and bears some resemblence to the Pariah dog who is believed to share its ancestry. As a protector of the desert nomad tribes, the most alert and aggressive dogs were staked around the perimeter of the camp at night. The Aidi has not been highly regarded by the tribes historically , called “El Kilb”, or filth, as are most dogs other than the Sloughi and other breeds regarded as noble. However, Moroccans have recently formed a club to protect the purity of the breed which has contributed so much in so many roles, as protector, hunter, police dog, and pet. Although the Aidi has been used primarily as a working dog, he has become more common as a house dog in the country. This breed also makes a good urban pet if he is given tasks and exercise enough to keep him satisfied and happy.

The Aidi is lean and muscular. It has a heavy plumed tail and medium-sized ears that are tipped forward. Their jaws are strong with tight black or brown lips. The eyes are medium, with a dark color and dark rims. The Aidi has a tapered muzzle with a black or brown nose that usually matches the coat.

The coat of the Aidi is course, thick and weather resistant. Coat colors include black, white, black and white, tawny and pale red.

The Aidi is energetic and highly protective and is said to make an outstanding watchdog. It is a powerful dog that is also agile, alert, and ready for action. As a sensitive breed, the dog should receive kind yet firm training. Excellent guard dog and scenting abilities, however this is not a dog breed for a house hold companion. Atlas Mountain Dog’s coarse and weather-resistant coat needs weekly brushing. There is very heavy shedding twice a year. The Aidi is good with the members of hispack. He is gentle and protective with children of his family. Highly trainable with extremely protective instincts.

They have no known genetic diseases.

This lively and high-strung breed needs plenty of exercise and challenging tasks to prevent his high-voltage disposition from over-charge. Aidi are not recommend for apartment life. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a minimum of a 1/4-acre and at least a 5′ tall fence. They should live in a semi-rural or rural settings. This breed is quiet and clean in the house.

Atlas Mountain Dog’s coarse and weather-resistant coat needs weekly brushing. There is very heavy shedding twice a year.

The Aidi stands 21 to 25 inches (53 to 63.5 cm) in height and weights around 55 pounds (25 kg). They have a life expectancy of 12 years. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary.

Other Names:
Chien de l’Atlas
Atlas Shepherd Dog

Country of origin:

Classification & standards:
FCI Group 2 Section 2 #247 standard
UKC Guardian Dogs standard

FCI-Federation Cynologique International (FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
AKC-American kennel club
ARBA-American Rare Breed Association


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Ainu (ainu dog)

The Ainu Dog is a Japanese Spitz breed rarely seen outside that county. Alternative names for the Ainu,(Hokkaido Dog),(Hokkaidoken), (Hokkaïdo), (Ainu-Ken), (Ainu Inu). They were developed by the ancient race of Ainu (white race) who lived on the islands of Japan 1000 BC from Nordic Dogs they had with them. The dog was named after the Ainu tribe. Origin is unknown. They arrived in Japan over 3,000 years ago when the Ainu brought this Spitz-type dog with them. As the Ainu were pushed onto the island of Hokkaido by an influx of Japanese people, their dogs gradually became restricted to this island.In 1869, the English zoologist Thomas W. Blankiston gave the breed the name Hokkaido.

The breed was useful in the search for survivors of an Army expedition that was caught in heavy snow crossing the Hakkoda Mountains of Aomori Prefecture in 1902.

In 1937, the Ministry of Education designated the breed a natural monument, and officially named it Hokkaido-inu.

The Ainu Dog is a thin, muscular, sturdy-looking dog. It is impulsive and fast and has a light gait. Ainu’s have small, erect ears that are at a right angle to the brow. Its eyes are somewhat small, dark brown and set triangularly. The teeth are healthy, solid and non-protruding. Some have spots of black on their tongues. The bridge is straight leading to its dark nose. The well-fitted lips have dark pigmentation. The tail curls in typical Spitz fashion. The Forelegs are straight and lean and the hindquarters are covered with a double coat.

The harsh, straight coat colors come in sesame, brindle, wolf gray, red, brown or white.

The dog’s ever alert and suspicious nature lent itself to the required role of village guardian. The Ainu has changed little over the centuries and is probably the oldest of the Japanese breeds. It was later named the Hokkaido Dog, but is still better known as the Ainu Dog, indeed it is registered with the FCI under that name. Many of the breed have blue-black tongues, a physical trait that suggests a distant relationship with the similarly tongued Chow Chow and Shar Pei. The Ainu Dog has always distinguished itself in big-game hunting, (especially bears and deer), in guarding property, and as a draft animal.

The Ainu Dog has no known health concerns.

The Ainu Dog is not recommended for apartment life. They can live outdoors, for their warm coats protect them from the cold. The Ainu needs moderate but regular exercise to stay in shape.

The harsh, straight, double coat of the Ainu Dog should be brushed and combed on a regular basis.

The height of the Ainu is about 18 to 22 inches (46 to 56 cm.), and the weight is 45 to 65 pounds (20 to 30 kg.). The life expectancy is about 11 to 13 years and the litter size is 4 to 6 puppies.

Common nicknames:

Classification and breed standards:
FCI: Group 5 Section 5 #261 Stds

FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale(FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
NKC = National Kennel Club
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry

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Airedale Terrier (Airdale)

The Airdale (often shortened to “Airedale”) is a relatively modern breed originating from Airedale in Yorkshire, England. It is sometimes called the King of Terriersbecause it is the largest of the terrier breeds, 50 to 100 pounds (23 to 45 kg). The breed has also been called the Waterside Terrier, because it was bred originally to hunt otters. Another alternative name is Bingley Terrier.

Airedale, a valley (dale) in the West Riding of Yorkshire, between the Aire and the Warfe Rivers, was the birthplace of the breed. In the mid-19th Century, working class people created the Airdale Terrier by crossing the old English rough-coated Black and Tan Terrier with the Otterhound.This created alarger terrier with a keener nose and an ability to take to the water in the river valleys. In 1864 they were exhibited for the first time at a championship dog show sponsored by the Airedale Agricultural Society. They were classified under different names, including Rough Coated, Bingley and Waterside Terrier. In 1879 breed fanciers decided to call the breed the Airdale Terrier, a name accepted by the Kennel Club (England) in 1886.

First Canadian registrations are recorded in the Stud Book of 1888-1889.

The first imports of Airdale Terriers to North America were in 1880s. The first Airdaleto come to American shores was named Bruce. After his 1881 arrival, Bruce won the terrier class in a New York dog show.

The patriarch of the breed is considered to be CH Master Briar (1897-1906). Two of his sons, Crompton Marvel and Monarch, also made important contributions to the breed.

In 1910, the ATCA (Airedale Terrier Club of America) offered the Airedale Bowl as a perpetual trophy, and continues to this day. It is now mounted on hardwood pedestal bases, holding the engraved plates with the names of hundreds of dogs that have been awarded Best of Breed at the National Specialties.

The Airdale Terrier was recognized by United Kennel Club in 1914.

In World War I he served in both the British and German armies. As messengers, Airdales were renowned for their ability to withstand devastating injuries and still deliver dispatches. As ambulance dogs, they saved lives by helping to locate wounded soldiers from among the casualties on the battlefield.The George Cross was awarded to an Airdale Terrier in the First World War.

After the First World War, the Airdales popularity rapidly increased thanks to stories of their bravery on the battlefield and also because Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, and Warren Harding owned Airdales. President Harding’s Airdalewas named Laddie Boy. President Roosevelt claimed that “An Airdale can do anything any other dog can do and then lick the other dog, if he has to.”

During the 1930s, when Airdales were farmed like livestock, American
breeders developed the Oorang Airdale.

1949 marked the peak of the Airdales popularity in the USA, ranked 20th out of 110 breeds by the American Kennel Club. The breed has since slipped to 50th out of 146.

With the success of movies starring Rin Tin Tin and Strongheart, both German Shepherds, and Lassie, a rough-coated Collie, the Airdale Terrier lost his place as the most popular dog in America. In 2000, the breed ranked 46th in individual registration with 3431 dogs enrolled that year and 60th in litter registrations with 797 litters. Today, the Airdale Terrier can be found in nearly every place on earth with active fancies in Australia, Europe, and South America.

Unlike some others, this breed still possesses strong working instincts and is favored by many families seeking a devoted and protective family dog. In Germany, the Airdale has long been admired for these samequalities and is one of a select group of breeds trained in schutzhund, the discipline that displays canine skills in obedience, tracking, and protection.

Airdale Terriers are natural athletes and can also be found working in search and rescue teams in Europe. They can also be found in obedience and agility competitions with owners who have the perseverance to work through their high-spirited hi-jinks and somewhat stubborn terrier character.

Two Airdales were among the dogs lost with the sinking of the Titanic. The Airdale, Kitty, belonged to Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, the real-estate mogul. The second Airdale belonged to William E. Carter of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Mr. Carter was the owner of the Renault automobile in which Jack and Rose trysted in the movie Titanic. Carter, hiswife and two children survived.

Marion Robert Morrison, otherwise known as John Wayne, grew up in. Glendale, California. His neighbors called him Big Duke, because he never went anywhere without his Airdale Terrier, Little Duke. He preferred Duke to Marion, and the name stuck for the rest of his life.

The Airdale Terrier, because of its joyful disposition and energy, was one of the first breeds, along with the (Giant Schnauzer) and the (Rottweiler), used to create the Black (Russian Terrier).

The Airdale Terrier is a large terrier with a harsh wiry coat, long flat head, and a deep chest. Its hair is bristly and resistant to dampness, but it needs stripping. The well-balanced dog stands square, with a level topline and very straight front legs. The v-shaped ears fold slightly to the side and forward. The nose is black. The teeth should meet in a level or scissors bite. The tail is carried high and is customarily docked; left undocked it should be carried gaily, but should not curl over the back.

The wiry outer coat is lined with a soft undercoat. The coat should be tan with black (or dark grizzle) markings. A bit of red in the black and/or a small white star on the chest are permitted. The legs (all the way to the thigh), chest, undersides, head and ears should be tan. Sometimes tan also extends up to the shoulders.

A very hardy breed, although some may suffer from eye problems, hip dysphasia and skin infections. If your Airdale Terrier has dry skin, he should be fed an adjusted omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in the diet.

The Airdale Terrier is not recommended for apartment life. They are very active indoors and will do best with at least an average-sized yard. Airdales were bred for active work, and therefore need plenty of exercise. They need to be taken for long daily walks. Most of them love to play with a ball, swim, or retrieve objects and once fully grown will happily run alongside a bicycle. Without enough attention and exercise the AirdaleTerrier will become restless and bored and will usually get itself into trouble. The exercise requirement can go down somewhat after the first two years (as with many dogs) but the first two years with an Airedale are very strenuous on the human. Then they start to get much more mellow.

Airdales have a hard, short-haired, double coat. The hair should be plucked about twice a year, but for dogs that are to be shown, much more intensive grooming is needed. Trim excessive hair between the pads of the feet when necessary. If you keep the coat stripped it will shed little to no hair, however if you do not strip the coat, you will most likely find fur piles around your baseboards, even with trimming, and brushing almost every day. They actually require a good bit of grooming. Burrs stick in the coat and beard. The beard should be washed daily because of food residue.

The dogs height is 22 to 24 inches (56 to 61 cm.) and females 22 to 23 inches (56 to 58 cm.). The weight for Dogs is 50 to 65 pounds (23to 29 kg.) and females 40 to 45 pounds (18 to 20 kg.). The life expectancy is about 10 to 12 years and the litter size averages about 9 puppies.

Other Names:
Bingley Terrier
Waterside Terrier
King of Terriers

Country of Orgin:
Yorkshire, England

Classification and breed standards:
FCI = (Group 3 Section 1 #7Stds)
AKC = (Terrier Stds)
UKC = (Terriers Stds)
ANKC = (Group 2 – (Terriers) Stds)
NZKC = (Terriers Stds)
CET = (Spanish Terrier Club)
CKC = (Group 4 – (Terriers) Stds)
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry
KC (UK), (Terrier Stds)

FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
AKC = American Kennel Club
UKC = United Kennel Club
KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
ANKC = Australian National Kennel Club
NKC = National Kennel Club
NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
CET = Club Español de Terriers (Spanish Terrier Club)
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Re


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Akbash dog

The Akbash dog is native to western Turkey in the region known as the Akbash, and it is primarily used as a Livestock guardian dog. The name comes from the Turkish word meaning white head.

The origins of the breed are not well understood but it is believed by some to be an ancient pure breed. The Akbash dog Dog is thought to be the Turkish equivalent of other white guardian breeds found in and around the northern Mediterranean Basin. Unlike those breeds, only the Akbash dogDog has its unique combination of molosser and sighthound qualities. This breed was developed at least 3000 years ago, Archeological evidence suggests that the earliest civilizations arose in the parts of the world currently occupied by Syria, Iran and Turkey (the fertile crescent region). It is here that about 10,000 years ago enough people congrated to form a society or societies, which in turn began to domesticate animals and cultivate (or domesticate) plants. In short order there would have been a need for livestock protection dogs to care for the livestock. The white breeds of livestock protection dogs include the . A reasonable – but not in any way proven – hypothesis is that white (Akbash) dogs were developed in Turkey, and spread from there with the exploits of the Ottoman and earlier empires, to where they are found today.

Akbash dog is equipped with keen hearing and superior strength. The Akbash dog has a massive head and powerful jaws. The v-shaped ears are set high with the tips slightly rounded, flat to the skull, and are carried pendant. Imported Turkish dogs may have cropped ears. Their almond shaped eyes are set well apart and distinctly oblique. Eye color varies from light golden brown to very dark brown. The neck is strong and muscular, medium in length and arches at the crest. It has strong, large, well-arched toes. The nails are blunt and either gray, brown or white. The pads are thick, hard, elastic and normally dark. The tail is long, reaching to the hocks. There is an elastic, springy nature to the gait.

Their white, weather resistant, double, short to medium length coats are coarse and non-matting, with very little doggy odor.

The Akbash dog is a primitive guard dog breed, requiring owners who understand canine behavior. The Akbash dogs are a combination of: submissive posturing to livestock, and dominance aggression – to stand up against bears and wolves.When used as a guard dog, the Akbash dog is not a shy dog, although the breed or companion dog. The Akbash dog has been bred to be independent. The Akbash dog is a relatively low-energy breed. Because it is in their nature to lie with the flocks they guard most of the day, they do not require tremendous endurance and little energy. That does not mean, however, that they can be happily confined to small spaces. It is still very much a working breed and is happiest when given a task to complete. These Akbash dogs are known for their intelligence, bravery, independence and loyalty.

The dogs we see in western Turkey have many of the ideal characteristics Akbash dog in Turkey are never allowed in the house as pets, and are usually smaller than we are used to. Lacking the nutritional and veterinary benefits we offer our North American dogs, Akbash dog in Turkey are more likely to be shorter, lighter, parasite-infested, and prone to degenerative diseases. Their lifespan is likely reduced.

Cases of hip dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) have occurred with this dog; however, the breed as a whole does not seem to be afflicted with these conditions nearly as often as many other large, rapidly growing breeds. Akbash Dogs International requires OFA hip certification on all breeding stock thus having a much lower incidence of hip dysplasia than dogs from the general population.

Akbash dogs are not recommended for apartment life, regardless of the amount of on-leash exercise provided. They are relatively inactive indoors and do best with a minimum of a 1/4-acre and at least a 5′ tall fence. They should live in a semi-rural or rural settings. This breed is quiet and clean in the house. They are a low activity level dog, but also an extremely athletic dog requiring a long daily walk, and lot of space to run around off it’s lead.

The hard coat is clean, non-smelling and non-matting but does require brushing to help the shedding process. They are above average shedders.

The litter size averages about 7 to 9 puppies. the weight of the Akbash dog is 90 to 130 pounds (41 to 81 kg), and the height is about 28 to 32 inches (71 to 81 cm). Akbash dogs, like many large breeds, can be expected to live 10 to 11 years. There is currently an Akbash dog living in Toronto, Canada that is 17 years old, likely the oldest Akbash dog alive.

Alternative names:
Akbas coban Köpegi

Country of origin:

Classification and breed standards:
UKC: Guardian Dogs Stds

NKC = National Kennel Club
UKC = United Kennel Club
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
ADI = Akbash Dogs International
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry


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The Akita, (pronounced a-KEE-ta), and also known as (Akita inu or Akita Ken), is a Breed of large dog originating in Japan, native to the island of Honshu in the region of Akita in Japan, where it has remained unchanged for centuries, named for,AkitaPrefecture, where it is thought to have originated. “Inu” means “dog” in Japanese, although in practice this animal is nearly always referred as “Akita-ken,” based on the Sino-Japanese reading of the same Kanji. Today, the Akita is considered the national dog of Japan and is designated as a Natural Monument.

Recent Dna Analysis found that the Akita was among the most ancient dog breeds. The breeds ancestors were dogs for many uses, first as an Imperial guard dog, used by matagi for hunting of deer and bear, andmany were used to guard the emperor and his children. Also, as a fighting dog, for sledding, and for police, army and guard work. TheAkita has keen hunting abilities and can even hunt in deep snow. He has a soft mouth, so he is suitable for waterfowl retrieval. These dogs, usually called matagi inu, were not as large as modern Akita. dogs.A stamp of the Akita “Tachibana” is on a Japanese postage stamp. Small statues of the Akita are often sent to ill people to express a wish for their speedy recovery, and to parents of newborn children to symbolize health.

In the Edo Period, Dewa Province, (present-day Akita prefecture), was ruled by the Satake Clan. Since the Satake were tozama daimyo , which was considered rebellious,they were given restrictions by the Tokugawa Shogunate in all military areas. The clan decided to encourage dog fightingaround 1630 in order to make it possible for the samurai to retain their aggressive edge in a way that would not offend the shogunate. Dog fighting became especially popular in the Odate area. Dog fighting enthusiasts in the area began to interbreed matagi inu with dogs indigenous to the area. These dogs, which later turned into the Akita, were called Odate inu at that time.

After the Meiji Restoration, Which ended Japan’s closed door policy people began to breed Akita with many dogs from other regions in Japan, such as the Tosa, and large, western dogs began to enter Japan. Akita were also bred with German Shepherds, Great Danes, and Mastiffs. This resulted in the breed losing many of its Spitz-like characteristics. Akita were later bred with Hokkaido and Karafuto dogs (also known as the Sakhalin Husky), after the First Sino-Japanese War.

In the Taisho Period, the mayor of Odate Town began a movement to preserve the Akita. By this time, the Akita had begun to turn into a mixed breed as a because of excessive breeding with other dogs. Watase Shozaburo, a Japanese zoologist that successfully proposed the Law for Protection of Natural Monuments alsoworked towards preserving the Akita breed. As a result, the Akitainu Introduction Foundation was created in May 1927 by the mayor of Odate, and nine Akita dogs were designated as natural monuments in1931. In 1932, the faithful Akita dog Hachiko was featured in an article in the Asahi Shimbun newspaper,leading to the popularity of the breed. When Helen Keller visited Akita prefecture in 1937, she expressed a desire to have an Akita dog. An Akita called Kamikaze-go was given to her within a month. When Kamikaze-go later died because of Canine distemper his brother, Kenzan-go, was promptly sent to her. By 1938a breed standard had been established and dog shows had been held, but such activities stopped after World War II began.

During THE WAR the lack of food caused the breed to lessen in numbers. The dogs were captured for the use of their fur to to warm army uniforms. People began to bred Akitas with shepherds to avoid capture. In, 1945, at the end of the war there were fewer than twenty purebred Akita dogs in Japan.The postwar period brought a liking to the dog and many occupation soldiers wanted a Akita, because it was by far the largest Japanese dog. American servicemen brought Akitas to the US after World War II. The fact that Helen Keller had an Akita also became well-known when she came to Japan in 1948 and thanked people in Akita for the dogs she was given. Most of the Akita dogs at this time had many German Shepherd-like characteristics. These dogs are currently known as Dewa line, or Dewa type Akitas.

The largest of the Japanese Spitz-type breeds, the Akita, is a powerful, solid, well-proportioned and distinctive looking dog. Strong and muscular with a flat, heavy head and strong, short muzzle. The Akita is slightly longer than he is tall with a broad, deep chest and level back. The head is broad and shaped like a blunt triangle. The stop is well-defined and there is a shallow groove going up the center of the forehead. The small, erect ears are carried forward and in line with the neck. The small, triangular eyes are dark brown. The nose is generally black (brown is permitted on white Akita’s, but black is preferred); the lips are black and the tongue is pink. The teeth should meet in a scissors, or level bite (scissors is preferred by most breeders). The tail is carried high and curled over the back. The Akitahas webbed, cat-like feet – which makes it a fine swimmer.

The double coat is composed of a harsh, waterproof outer coat insulated with a thick, soft undercoat.

Akitas come in only five colours: Red, Fawn, Sesame, Brindle, and Pure White. All except white must have whitish hair on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, the neck, chest, body and tail. All colors are accepted in the American Akita. The Pinto color is not accepted as a Japanese Akita color, but is as an American Akita color. In the U.S., some breeders interbreed the original Japanese type with the heavier American type, which is larger, and allows more colors.

The Akita is classified in the Working Group by the American Kennel Club. Although different breeds contributed to the modern Akita, including both hunting dogs and some dogs used as competitive fighting dogs. The Akita’s ancestry dogs used for fighting, the
modern day Akita breeders avoiding breeding from dogs that are known to have aggressive natures. In general, the modern day Akita is very laid back, and has an easy-going temperament which makes it a very good family pet.

They are excellent house dogs. They are very clean and that they are very easy to house break. Akitas have been described as almost “cat-like,” as they are clean and odorless. They require moderate, but regular exercise. Akitas are known to be very quiet dogs, only barking “when there is something to bark about”. Akitas may take a while totrain because they are easily bored and can be stubborn. Akita are highly intelligent, and will only obey a task if they see the point of it. They are not trick dogs. They are also a dominant species, and will not take orders from a weak or abusive leader, requiring a firm but loving education.

As far as the family children are concerned, there are few worries. Akitas are devoted, patient friends and protectors of children. Akitas are typically very gentle with children, and it is said that Japanese mothers often left their children with only the Akitas to watch over and protect them. However, while an Akita may love “his” children, he will not necessarily love their friends, especially if teased, and can be aloof with strangers. Common sense should prevail, and adequate supervision of pets and children is generally a good idea. Having said this, a well socialized Akita can be an excellent companion.

The loyalty and devotion displayed by an Akita is phenomenal. The typical pet Akitawill follow you from room to room, yet has the uncanny ability not to be underfoot. Your Akita lives his life as if his only purpose is to protect you and spend time with you. This trait is evident in the tale of Hackiko, a dog remembered in Japan for his loyalty, who returned to the train station every day for the rest of his life to wait for him.

It is felt by some that combining the two types leads to improved appearance and genetic health by increasing genetic diversity. In the United States, there is only a single Akitabreed registered by the American Kennel Club, whereas they are separated into two breeds in every other country in the world except Canada. In other countries the breed has been separated into two breeds: the Akita and the American Akita. The American Akita is seen by some American breeders as being a different breed than the Japanese and these breeders advocate a splitting of the one breed into two.

Health problems known to affect this breed includeCanine herpesvirus, a strain of the Herpes virus that happens to affect canines.
Progressive retinal atrophy, (PRA), an adult-onset condition which gradual degeneration in the eye cells (i.e. rods & cones)
Sebaceous adenitis, an autoimmune condition which attacks and destroys the dog’s sebaceous gland.
Canine Hip Dysplasia
Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV = “Bloat” or “Torsion”)
Akita owners should take special note of the high incidence of GDV (Gastric dilatation volvulus) in this breed. Excess gas trapped in the dog’s stomach causes “bloat”.wisting of the stomach (volvulus or “torsion”) causes or is caused by excess gas. GDV is an emergency condition requiring immediate veterinary treatment. Akita owners should be alert to the symptoms of GDV and know the location of the nearest emergency veterinary facility. Pemphigus,This causes the autoimmune system to attack the dog’s skin (leading to pustules).

Akitas in UK and USA/Canada surveys had a median lifespan of the Akita , which is similar to other breeds of their size. In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (32%), cardiac (14%), and gastrointestinal, including bloat/torsion (14%). In a 2000-2001 USA/Canada Health Survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (21%), GDV (=bloat/torsion, 21%), musculoskeletal (15.5%), and autoimmune (7%).

Left unattended in the backyard or in a kennel, they can develop “personality” problems, and may become destructive to the yard due to boredom. They are highly pack oriented, thus, isolating them from a social environment causes them great stress.

The Akita will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is moderately active indoors and will do best with a large yard. The Akita needs moderate but regular exercise to stay in shape. It should be taken for long daily walks. The Akita is a large dominant dog. Akitas should never be taken to off-leash parks due to this dominant behavior. Akitas properly socialized and raised with other animals usually accept them as members of the family. An Akitas can be extremely aloof.

The coarse, stiff, short-haired coat needs significant grooming. Brush with a firm bristle brush, and bathe only when absolutely necessary as bathing removes the natural waterproofing of the coat. This breed sheds heavily twice a year.

The Akita male dogs stands about 26 to 28 inches (66 to 71 cm.) and the Females 24 to 26 inches (61 to 66 cm.). The male weights about 75 to 120 pounds (34 to 54 kg.) and Females 75 to 110 pounds (34 to 50 kg.). The litter size is 3 to 12 puppies(Average 7 or 8) and the Akita’s life span is 11 to 15 years.

Other Names:
Akita inu
Akita Ken

Country of Orgin:

Classification and breed standards:
FCI: Group 5 Section 5 #255 Stds
AKC: Working Stds
ANKC: Group 6 – (Utility) Stds
CKC: Group 3 – (Working Dogs) Stds
KC (UK): Utility Stds
NZKC: Utility Stds
UKC: Northern Breeds Stds

ACA = Akita Club of America
FCI = Fédération Cynologique Internationale(FCI is not a registry and does not issue any pedigree)
AKC = American Kennel Club
UKC = United Kennel Club
KCGB = Kennel Club of Great Britain
CKC = Canadian Kennel Club
NKC = National Kennel Club
NZKC = New Zealand Kennel Club
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry


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Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog owners appear to disagree and photos seem to indicate a fairly distinct type. The most documentated and consistent story about the orgin is the Lane’s breeding program. The breed was developed by the Lane family of Rebecca, Georgia, out of stock that originated on the Paulk plantation near the town of Alapaha, in a sustained effort over many decades to preserve the “plantation dog” of south Georgia from extinction. Detractors say that the Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is identical to the American Bulldog and that nothing distinctive is found in the Otto. This is not a kind of American Bulldog.

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog has a broad head and natural drop ears. The prominent muzzle is covered by loose upper lips. The eyes are set well apart. The ears and tail are never trimmed or docked. The body is sturdy and very muscular. The well-muscled hips are narrower than the chest. The straight back is as long as the dog is high at the shoulders. The dewclaws are never removed and the feet are cat-like

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog’s coat is relatively short and fairly stiff. Preferred colors are blue merle, brown merle, or red merle all trimmed in white or chocolate & white. Also preferred are the glass eyes, (blue) or marble eyes (brown and blue mixed in a single eye).

The breed is quite rare with a population of living dogs probably around two hundred. Primary registry for the breed is the Animal Research Foundation in Quinlan, Texas. Registry also available through the ABBA (Alapaha BlueBlood Bulldog Association).

They are great companions and protectors. They are active and very alert. They are powerful built and very territorial. They are known for their uncommon courage.

With such a small genetic pool, this breed is susceptible to Entropion, an inversion of the eyelids.

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs will do okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. These athletic, active dogs have an average demand for exercise. They need long daily walks and will enjoy a romp in a safe enclosed area.

Little grooming is needed. Occasionally comb and brush to remove dead hair and cut down on shedding. Bathe once every two weeks. This breed is an average shedder.

Its life span is 12 to 15 years. The height is 24 inches (61 cm.) The weight for males are up to 100 pounds (47 kg.), females about 78 pounds (34 kg.). There is a considerable difference between the males and females. Males can be almost twice as heavy as the smallest females. The litter size is 4 to 8 puppies.

Other Names:

Country of origin:
United States

Classification & standards:
Not recognized by any major kennel club.

ARF = Animal Research Foundation
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ABBA = Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Association
WWKC = World Wide Kennel Club

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Alaskan Husky


As its name suggests the Alaskan Husky originates from Alaska in the United States (Alaska).The Alaskan Husky is derived from a mix of northern types, most notably the Siberian husky. It is not considered to be a wolfdog, although distant wolf ancestry is quite visible in several features of many Alaskan Huskies. The history of the Alaskan Husky really began with the Gold rushes of the late ninteenth century Alaskan Huskiesof that era were typically heavy draft dogs with obvious Saint Bernard ancestry. The importation into Alaska of dogs from across the Bering Strait in Siberia in 1908 and subsequent years changed Alaskan sleddogs radically and permanently towards a smaller dog with lighter weight and much greater speed. With the increasing prevalence of motorized winter transport in the mid twentieth century, working sled dogs became less common in the northern villages. The Alaskan sled dog experienced a revival in the 1970s. George Attla, a Native Alaskan from the village of Huslia, was largely responsible for this. Many successful racing dogs today trace their lineage back to Attla dogs.

The Alaskan Husky is a type or a category, not a breed It falls short of being a breed in that there is no preferred type and no restriction as to ancestry. it is defined only by its purpose, which is that of a highly efficient sled dog.

Most dog drivers usually distinguish between the Alaskan Husky and “hound crosses”, so perhaps there is informal recognition that the Alaskan Husky displays a degree of northern dog type. Specializations in type exist within the breed, such as freighting dogs (Mackenzie River Husky), sprint Alaskans, and distance Alaskans. Most Alaskan Huskies have pointy ears, meaning they are in fact classified as a spitz-type dog.

The Alaskan Husky is the best racing sled dog in the world today.Racing sled dogs are bred for stamina, strength, speed, and endurance. A positive working attitude is essential. The Alaskan Huskies is the sled dog of choice for world-class dog sled racing sprint competition.The purebrednorthern breeds have not been able to match it for sheer racing speed. Speed-racing events such as the Fairbanks,Alaska Open North American Championship and the Anchorage Fur Rendezous are invariably won by teams of Alaskan Huskies, or of Alaskans crossed with hounds or gun dogs. These are highly demanding events. Hounds are valued for their toughness and endurance. Winning speeds often average more than 19 miles per hour (31 km/h) over three days’ racing at 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) each day.

World-class dogsled racing can be extremely valuable for the dogs that can meet the standards. A top-level racing lead dog can bring $ 10,000-15,000. Alaskan Huskies that fail to meet high performance standards, however, are worth little or nothing. Since many more are bred than are ultimately needed for racing. There is a high level of culling which attracts attention from animal rights activists.

Alaskan Huskies are usually somewhat larger than Siberian Huskies. Alaskan Huskiesare usually leaner in build than Siberians. Siberians often have blue or any combination of blue and brown eyes, where as Alaskan Huskies often have brown eyes.

Color and markings are a matter of total indifference to racing drivers. Alaskan Huskiesmay be of any possible canine color and any pattern of markings. Eyes may be of any color and are often light blue. Coats are almost always short to medium in length, never long, and usually less dense than those of northern purebreds. The shorter coat length is governed by the need for effective heat dissipation while racing.

In very cold conditions, Alaskan Huskies often race in “dog coats” or belly protectors. Particularly in long distance races, these dogs often require “dog booties” to protect their feet from abrasion and cracking. Thus the considerations of hardiness and climate resistance prevalent in breeds such as the Siberian Husky and Canadian Inuit Dog are subordinated in the Alaskan Husky to the overriding consideration of speed. On long distance races they require considerable care and attention on the trail at rest stops.

Sled dogs that come in contact with the public at races or in . excursion businesses must not be aggressive toward humans. Nevertheless, shyness is a frequent trait in the Alaskan Husky

They are occasionally killed by moose in the winter.Alaskan Huskies tend not to back down from such encounters and an angry moose can easily stomp and kick several dogs causing severe injuries. Sled dogs tethered in or near to northern forests may be attacked and killed on their stakeouts by wolves. Professional dog sled racers always surround their lots with high fences to prevent wildlife attacks.

The Alaskan Husky is generally a healthy dog. Some strains are prone to genetic health problems similar to those found in purebred dog breeds. These may include PRAhypothyroidism. Dogs with an esophagus disorder, termed Wheezers sometimes occur. When this occur the dog is unable to bark, but have the ability to produce a low-pitched howling noise. The defect is genetically linked, appearing rarely, and only in white coated blue-eyed dogs. Alaskan Huskies are often healthier in drier climates such as that of interior Alaska. In the more humid regions, they are prone to develop ear and related infections.

Young Alaskan Huskies needs plenty of space to run and play, but their high demand for exercise and activity makes them a poor choice for urban residents.In Alaska they are popular as pets, where they are easyly obtained from professional dogsled racers. Puppies judged to be unfit for racing are regularly culled, and as a result they are often available free to any good home. Older dogs that have outlived their usefulness as racing dogs make excellent pets for people willing to exercise them regularly. Older ex-racers tend to be very alert and well behaved, as well as somewhat less energetic than their younger counterparts.

Alaskan Huskies are not household dogs, shed heavily during the spring, hyperactive, running in circles inside a house when bored or cramped. If left alone in a dwelling for long periods they become destructive out of boredom. They enjoy hunting small animals. When they are hooked up to a sled, they should not be left for long periods of time because they get bored and start to chew the gang line.

The Husky must be trained not to bark or howl when with other dogs In crowded neighborhoods this can be a very irritating nuisance to neighbors. They can be trained for silence, albeit with some effort. They have a tendency to dig and tunnel underneath fences and houses to hunt burrowing animals or to escape their enclosures.

The coat does not need much care except during the twice a year heavy shedding season, when they have to be combed thoroughly with a metal comb.

Alaskan Huskies are moderate in size, averaging in height 20 to 24 inches(50.8 to 60.9cm). The weight is 46 to 60 pounds (21 to 25 kg) for males and 38 to 42 pounds (17 to 19 kg) for females. Some of them superficially resemble racing strains of the Siberian Husky breed (which is undeniably part of the Alaskan Husky genetic mix), but are usually taller and larger with more pronounced tuck-up.
The life span of the Alaskan Husky is usually between 10 to 15 years and many Alaskan Huskies , bred for early maturity and high performance as young dogs, tend to deteriorate rapidly after six years of age. The litter size is 4 to 10 puppies.

Country Of Orgin:
United States (Alaska)

Classification and breed standards:
Not recognized by any major kennel club

There is little support to establish a registry or to orginize breeders for the Alaskan Husky. There are dog kennels with over hundreds of dogs, and the breed population even greater. The Alaskan Husky is still an informal variety and unregistered category of dog.

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Alaskan Klee Kai

The Alaskan Klee Kai is a northern breed of dog in the spitz family. The Alaskan Klee Kai was developed in Wasilla, by Linda S. Spurlin of Wasilla, Alaska, and her family in the mid 70’s, after she observed the result of an accidental mating of an Alaskan Husky and an unknown small dog. From the early 70’s through 1988, the Spurlins carefully selected dogs who met their high standards for appearance and soundness. The breed was developed with Siberian and Alaskan Huskies using Schipperke and American Eskimo Dog to bring down the size without dwarfism.The idea was to create a companion-sized version of the Alaskan Husky.

She bred these dogs in private until she released them to the general public in 1988. Mrs. Spurlin and subsequent breeders of the Alaskan Klee Kai were and are determined to avoid health and temperament problems in their developing breed, even though it has meant very slow growth in the numbers of Alaskan Klee Kai. The Alaskan Klee Kai is still extremely rare.

Originally called the “Klee Kai”, the breed split into “Alaskan Klee Kai” and “Klee Kai” for political reasons in 1995. The term “Klee Kai” was derived from Alaskan Athabaskan words meaning “small dog” The breed consolidated under the new name in 2002. The Alaskan Klee Kai was officially recognized by the American Rare Breed Association (ARBA) in 1995 and by the United Kennel Club (UKC) on January 1, 1997.

The Alaskan Klee Kai is a small version of the Alaskan Husky with a wedge-shaped head featuring a striking masked face, prick ears, and a double coat. The length of body is just slightly longer than the height. The Alaskan Klee Kai has a complete set of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite. The tail is well-furred and curls over the back or to either side when the dog is alert or moving. The appearance of the Alaskan Klee Kai reflects the breed’s Northern Heritage.

Their colors are black and white, All varieties of gray-and-white, red-and-white (rare) and solid white (non registerable).They have a double coat of, short to medium length.

Alaskan Klee Kai are a moderate to high energy breed and some will bark. Most have soft vocalization which are called “talkers”. They are loving with family and friends but some are cautious and reserved with strangers. Early, consistent socialization, as with all breeds, is especially necessary in these dogs. If in an appropriate environment, the Alaskan Klee Kai can be a wonderful companion.Their activity level is high. they are not watch dogs or guard dogs.

The Alaskan Klee Kai is a highly intelligent, very curious, active, quick and agile little dog that quickly become an integral part of any family that chooses to adopt one.

The Alaskan Klee Kai has little health problems

Because of there size, these dogs can live in an apartment, but a house with at least a small yard is recommended. These dogs should be exercised regularly. They should be taken on long daily walks.

Most don’t like wet feet and will spend hours daily grooming themselves. They do not have a “doggy odor” nor do they have “dog breath.” Most Alaskan Klee Kai will seldom require a bath. This breed sheds and should be combed and brushed on a regular basic. They normally blow coat once to twice a year and have minimal shedding during all other times.

The Alaskan Klee Kai looks like a miniature husky. They come in three sizes. The life expectancy is about 12 to 16 years and the litter size is 1 to 3 puppies.

The Standard has a height of 15 to 17.5 inches (38 to 42 cm) and weight of 23 pounds (10 kg.)
The Miniature has a height of 13 to 15 inches (33 to 39 cm) and weight of 15 pounds (7 kg.)
The Toy has a height under 13 inches (33 cm.) and weight under 10 pounds (4.3 kg.)

Common nicknames:

Classification and breed standards: 
UKC: Northern Breeds – Stds

UKC = United Kennel Club
ARBA=American Rare Breed Association
CKC = Continental Kennel Club
NKC = National Kennel Club
APRI = American Pet Registry Inc.
ACR = American Canine Registry


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